Political commentators said although the vote is not binding on May's government, it presents the British prime minister with the dilemma of either imposing a power-sharing plan on Holyrood or attempting to avert a crisis by putting forward concessions. The Scottish National Party joined forces with Labour, the Liberal Democrats and the Greens to vote down Theresa May's European Union withdrawal bill.
Meanwhile, the UK Government has accused Scottish opponents of "nit-picking" and told its Scottish counterparts the "door is still open" for a deal to end the long-running Brexit powers dispute. "I still think we can resolve this issue and that remains my objective", he said.
The UK government has the authority to simply impose the Brexit legislation on Scotland, "even if that is politically problematic [as] it would overturn 20 years of constitutional convention and precedent", she added.
The United Kingdom's European Union withdrawal bill is being now debated in the country's parliament and is due for the final vote in the House of Commons in the coming weeks.
The British government said it would refer the bill to legal officers and a hearing is scheduled for July in the Supreme Court unless agreement can be found before then.
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He said: 'This means that the vote on consent for the Withdrawal Bill at Holyrood today need not be the final word on this matter - there is still time to fix this mess'.
The minister said he was disappointed by "all the constitutional hoo-ha, all the bickering and politicking". But Westminster has identified 24 areas, including agriculture, fisheries and public procurement, where it wants to temporarily retain powers to ensure an orderly withdrawal from the EU.
Both sides said the door remains open for cross-party talks with United Kingdom and Scottish ministers in a bid to break the deadlock.
The SNP MP warned Mrs May not to "veto the democratic wishes of the Scottish Parliament" and claimed "the Conservatives are isolated and out of touch with the people of Scotland".
"Labour know perfectly clearly what the position of the Scottish Parliament is and, of course, Labour will have the chance to influence that themselves on Tuesday when I hope the whole parliament will say the power grab is unacceptable".