Gayle only recently arrived in Britain for the limited-overs leg of the tour, having missed West Indies' 2-1 Test series loss to England.
The second one-day global between England and West Indies at Trent Bridge was abandoned because of heavy rain on Thursday.
The big-hitting opener was ruled out at the last minute here after hurting his hamstring while warming up, and then spent part of his 38th birthday in hospital having scans to assess the seriousness of his injury.
The problem forced Windies to make a late change to their intended line-up in Nottingham after Gayle approached captain Jason Holder shortly before the toss and complained of hamstring trouble.
A 20-over match was still a possibility if play begun by 5:56pm BST, but with a little under two hours until that cut-off time the umpires called time on the day as the rain continued to fall.
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"Chris has been for scans", West Indies coach Stuart Law told reporters.
England lead 1-0 in the five-match series, having won the first game at Old Trafford by seven wickets. "We don't know the results of them just yet".
At Old Trafford, an unbeaten century from Jonny Bairstow had helped England stroll to the victory over West Indies in the opening match on Tuesday.
"The West Indies are probably a threat more so as a group than any individual they have within their team", he said.