Vettel was already in the garage contemplating the heavily damaged front wing and left of his vehicle.
The incident was due to be investigated by race stewards post-race.
The Red Bulls of Verstappen and Daniel Ricciardo, who was third quickest, look the most likely to upset Vettel's plans, but it could be a long night for Hamilton on the tight, corner-heavy circuit where overtaking is notoriously tough.
The safety vehicle is then immediately enter the track, while the Briton Lewis Hamilton (Mercedes), who started in fifth position on the grid, took advantage of this accident to take the lead of the race.
"I want to congratulate my team, they did a fantastic job", said Hamilton.
Lewis is leading the race and the three of us are out.
After a few laps behind the safety auto, the race resumed for real on lap 7.
Slow off the line, Vettel moved to his left to cover Verstappen but pushed him into Raikkonen, who had got off to a flying start and was passing the Dutchman.
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"Fifth place is definitely not good compared to first", said the Mercedes driver.
Valtteri Bottas came home in third place in the second Mercedes after struggling for pace throughout the race, ending his day eight seconds down from his team-mate.
The Ferrari driver spoke to the media about the first lap incident after retiring, he said: 'I didn't see that much. "It was not very clever". I saw Max and then I saw Kimi hitting the side of me.
The first lap incident left Verstappen, who has now had seven retirements this season, unimpressed with Vettel.
While Alonso was eventually forced to retire, this drive offered a reminder of why McLaren have been so desperate to keep him. "It's a pity. We had high hopes". The safety auto was also deployed on lap 11 when Toro Rosso's Daniil Kvyat crashed into the barriers.
Mercedes declined to pit Hamilton under the safety auto but after the restart, he reeled off a string of fastest laps on the slowly drying track, extending his lead over Ricciardo.
The safety auto came out again, after Marcus Ericsson's Sauber stalled on lap 39. It was too little too late for Valterri though as although he closed the gap he wasn't able to overtake Ricciardo.