The budget bill allocates $260m for the continuing development of the missile programme and $260 million for the Quds Force, Irna news agency reported.
A total of 240 lawmakers voted for the bill, out of the 244 parliamentarians present.
"The world may be stable only on the basis of equal rights of the countries", he continued, but this does not exempt countries from their obligations for the worldwide community.
The measure comes in retaliation to new USA sanctions on Iran over its ballistic-missile program and missile tests. In response to this, Iran complained to the UN Security Council about the US sanctions and accused Washington of breaching the nuclear deal.
He was referring to a 2015 nuclear deal with world powers, known officially as the JCPOA, under which Iran agreed to strict limits on its nuclear programme in exchange for an easing of sanctions.
After the result was announced, lawmakers shouted: "Death to America".
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"The bill has very wisely tried not to violate the JCPOA and also give no chance to the other party to manipulate it, " Araqchi said.
Abbas Araghchi, a deputy foreign minister and senior nuclear negotiator on hand for the vote, said a moderate President Hassan Rouhani's government would support the bill.
The United States has had no diplomatic ties with the Iran since 1980, and Trump has halted the direct contacts initiated by his predecessor Barack Obama.
The Iranian plan would require Iran's government and armed forces to draw up a strategy to counter USA violations of human rights around the world and to support Iranian bodies and individuals affected by United States sanctions.
Under the law, the foreign ministry is tasked to create and publish a blacklist of people to be put under sanctions - in cooperation with the Revolutionary Guards' foreign operations wing, Central Bank, and ministry of intelligence.
It orders the foreign ministry and the judiciary to take measures to protect Iranians in USA prisons for violation of sanctions or facing persecution and extradition elsewhere.